继续学术性——2019年北京高考英语阅读理解题分析

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本人在上篇贴文中对2018年北京高考英语阅读理解题作了分析,强调其学术性特征。那么,2019年北京高考英语阅读理解题是否呈现同样的特征呢?本人的回答:是。下面即对阅读理解C作类似的分析。(全文附后)


一、篇章主题

该篇首段即开篇,第一句以“自动语音电话如此扰人以至很多人都拒绝接陌生号码打来的电话”这一常见现象做铺垫,然后继续陈述具体事例说明其严重性,最后话锋一转,提出“很快你就会质疑你听到的来话声音的真实性”的论点,即全篇的主题。

二、篇章结构

该文篇章结构同样是开篇+主体论证+结论
的结构,各个部分的结构也比较清晰。

开篇:
开篇的结构是明显概述+立论
,首句做铺垫,第二句和第三句陈述具体事例,第四句议论,第五句和第六句推测,旨在说明行文的缘由或依据,然后转移焦点,顺势立论,提出论点。

主体论证
:主体论证部分主要通过陈述事实和逻辑演绎对论点继续论证。主体分为两个段落。第一段
看似没有明显的主题句,但句首的That's because承接开篇的论点实际上相当于该段的分论点,即直接论述开篇的论点:“很快你就会质疑你听到的来话声音真实性”。该段只有两句话,都是进行具体陈述。第二段
呈现典型的主题句+支撑/扩展句
的结构。首句These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. 作为主题句表达该段的分论点:“这些发展很有可能使自动语音电话的问题更糟糕”,其余句子作为支撑/扩展句对主题句表达的分论点进行论证。

结论:
结论部分,从信息和意义两方面看,应该包括最后两段。倒数第二段的主要内容涉及人们应该如何解决自动语音电话骚扰的问题,没有提供新的信息,当然也不是对论点继续进行论证。最后一段只有一句话(Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose, and the problem is only going to get harder from here on out.),似乎是就主体论证第二段的A lot of business is still done over the phone, and much of it is based on trust and existing relationships.的内容而做的结论性表述,但似乎与整篇的主题关联不大,显得有些突兀。另外,从结构上看以两个段落做结论似乎不够严谨。结论部分应该回应开篇的论点,即扣题,同时可以总结或概括主体论证部分的内容,还可以提出相应的建议或预期或展望。该文倒数第二段针对论点提出了应该采取的措施满足了结论部分的基本要求。

三、连贯和衔接

该文陈述性内容比较多,行文比较流畅,连贯和衔接处理的比较好。

段落过渡:
该文以陈述常见现象做铺垫比较自然,易于引起读者共鸣。其它段落的过渡同样自然流畅,第二段用that's because承接第一段非常自然。第三段和第四段以代词these和we过渡是常见且有效的手段。最后一段使用名词credibility似乎与上段关系不大,有点突兀。

句子衔接和连贯:
整体看,上下句的衔接流畅自然,逻辑关系清晰明确,整体内容一致性比较好。以第一段为例,

1
The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. 2
By next year, half of the calls we receive will be scams. 3
We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. 4
Unfortunately, it’s too little, too late. 5
By the time these "solutions" become widely available, scammers will have moved onto cleverer means. 6
In the near future, it's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. 7
Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.

第二句用表示时间的短语by next year和定冠词加名词the calls连接第一句。第三句用代词we连接第二句。第四句用过渡副词和代词it连接上句。第五句至最后一句用表示时间的短语分别连接上句,同时还都分别使用了代词。综上,该段主要是使用表示时间关系的短语和代词的衔接手段来连接上下句,做到了流畅自然。

四、词汇正式性

该文的词汇体现了较明显的书面语言的特征,即词汇和表达方式比较高级、抽象、文气,具有明显的正式性。如下词汇和短语呈现高频高级特征:

Robocall/ scams/ approach/ unfortunately/ available/ manipulation/ conference/ convincing/ reservation/ detection/ current/ likely/ precision/ breach/ campaign/ confirming/ uniform/ abandoning/ Credibility

五、句式复杂性

该文中的句式比较复杂多变,从句比较多,非谓语动词比较多。以下面的句子为例:

That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images, showing when and who they were made by, or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data-based communications — using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.

此句比较长,也比较复杂。句子结构是复合句,主句的谓语might mean,含有四个并列宾语,都是动名词,developing,showing,abandoning和moving,并各自带有宾语。第二个宾语showing接关系副词和关系代词引导的从句:when and who they were made by。破折号表示进一步解释,是以非语言手段连接句子成分,其后接的现在分词短语using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp作状语对此前的成分进行修饰说明。最后的成分是非限定性定语从句修饰前面的名词FaceTime or WhatsApp。总体看,此句具有相当的复杂性,尤其是使用非语言手段,标点符号,扩展句子,值得学习。

六、结束语


以上从主题表述,论述或论证,篇章结构,连贯衔接到词汇和语法等方面对2019年北京高考英语阅读理解第三题做了简要分析,从中可以看到北京高考英语的阅读理解继续呈现书面语言化和学术性特征,代表着今后高中英语学习和考试改革的方向。同时,这类阅读材料对于学生开展阅读和写作练习和训练具有很好的促进作用。

附:2018年北京高考英语--阅读理解

The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next year, half of the calls we receive will be scams. We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately, it's too little, too late. By the time these "solutions" become widely available, scammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near future, it's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.

That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use. At this year's I/O Conference, a company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing human-sounding voice that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.

These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother's name, and far more. Armed with this knowledge, they're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means, for example, that a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller's, tricking you into "confirming" your address, mother's name, and card number. Scammers follow money, so companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phone, and much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.

We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images, showing when and who they were made by, or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data-based communications — using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.

Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose, and the problem is only going to get harder from here on out.


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