助力英语学习,解析2019年全国III高考英语阅读理解D

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今天,小编与大家一起分享2019年全国III高考英语阅读理解C,希望有助于大家的英语学习。

真题呈现

D

Monkeys seem to have a way with numbers.

A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols consisting of numbers and selective letters with 0-25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The researchers then tested how the monkeys combined—or added—the symbols to get the reward.

Here's how Harvard Medical School scientist Margaret Livingstone, who led the team, described the experiment: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. On one part of the screen, a symbol would appear, and on the other side two symbols inside a circle were shown. For example, the number 7 would flash on one side of the screen and the other end would have 9 and 8. If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example.

After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more

than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination.

When the team examined the results of the experiment more closely, they noticed that the monkeys tended to underestimate(低估) a sum compared with a single symbol when the two were close in value—sometimes choosing, for example, a 13 over the sum of 8 and 6. The underestimation was systematic: When adding two numbers, the monkeys always paid attention to the larger of the two, and then added only a fraction(小部分)of the smaller number to it.

"This indicates that there is a certain way quantity is represented in their brains, "Dr. Livingstone says. “But in this experiment what they're doing is paying more attention to the big number than the little one.”

32. What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them?

A. They fed them. B. They named them.

C. They trained them. D. They measured them.

33. How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment?

A. By drawing a circle. B. By touching a screen.

C. By watching videos. D. By mixing two drinks.

34. What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys?

A. They could perform basic addition. B. They could understand simple words.

C. They could memorize numbers easily. D. They could hold their attention for long.

35. In which section of a newspaper may this text appear?

A. Entertainment. B. Health. C. Education. D. Science.

正确答案

32. C 33. B 34. A 35. D

答案解析

本文是一篇新闻报道,以客观报道的角度,介绍了Margaret Livingstone 的实验过程及结果。文章以介绍了猴子和数字的关系,来展开此实验,试题相对较难。

32. 题目:What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them?把 before testing them作为定位词,可以找到定位句: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. 因此:在开始实验前应训练猴子能触碰屏幕的能力,选项C符合题意。

33. 考查细节理解。题目为: How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment?根据题意,找到对应句:文章第三段最后一句,"If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; if they ... they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example ", 可知猴子通过触碰屏幕来获得奖励,故选B.

34. 考查推理判断。题目What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys?根据题意找到对应句:文章第四段"they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination",猴子可以做基本的加法。由此可知,A符合题意。

35. 考查主旨大意中的话题推断。由于本篇文章讲述的社会科学实验,该实验介绍了猴子和数字的关系。因此话题应该出现在报纸的科学版面,所以选择D。

参考译文

猴子似乎有处理数字的方法。

一组研究人员训练了三只恒河猴,将26个明显不同的符号(包括数字和选择字母)与0-25滴水或果汁联系起来作为奖励。研究人员随后测试了猴子如何组合或添加符号来获得奖励。

哈佛医学院的科学家玛格丽特·利文斯通(Margaret Livingstone)领导了这个研究小组,他描述了这个实验:在猴子的笼子里,给它们提供有触摸屏。在屏幕的一部分,会出现一个符号,而在另一侧,会显示圆内的两个符号。例如,数字7将在屏幕的一侧闪烁,另一端将有9和8。如果猴子接触到屏幕的左侧,它们将得到七滴水或果汁;如果它们进入圆圈,它们将得到数字17的和,在本例中。

在进行了数百次测试之后,研究人员发现猴子们会更喜欢更高的值。

超过一半的时间,表明他们正在进行计算,而不仅仅是记住每个组合的值。

当研究小组更仔细地研究实验结果时,他们注意到猴子们往往低估(低估)一个和,而当这两个符号的价值相近时,有时会选择13而不是8和6的和。这种低估是系统性的:当增加两个数字时,猴子总是注意两个数字中的较大者,然后只增加较小数字的一小部分(小部分)。

利文斯通博士说:“这表明在他们的大脑中有某种数量的表达方式。”“但在这个实验中,他们所做的是更多地关注大数字而不是小数字。”

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