Monkeys seem to have a way with numbers.
A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols consisting of numbers and selective letters with 0-25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The researchers then tested how the monkeys combined—or added—the symbols to get the reward.
Here's how Harvard Medical School scientist Margaret Livingstone, who led the team, described the experiment: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. On one part of the screen, a symbol would appear, and on the other side two symbols inside a circle were shown. For example, the number 7 would flash on one side of the screen and the other end would have 9 and 8. If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example.
After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more
than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination.
When the team examined the results of the experiment more closely, they noticed that the monkeys tended to underestimate(低估) a sum compared with a single symbol when the two were close in value—sometimes choosing, for example, a 13 over the sum of 8 and 6. The underestimation was systematic: When adding two numbers, the monkeys always paid attention to the larger of the two, and then added only a fraction(小部分)of the smaller number to it.
"This indicates that there is a certain way quantity is represented in their brains, "Dr. Livingstone says. “But in this experiment what they're doing is paying more attention to the big number than the little one.”
32. What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them?
A. They fed them. B. They named them.
C. They trained them. D. They measured them.
33. How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment?
A. By drawing a circle. B. By touching a screen.
C. By watching videos. D. By mixing two drinks.
34. What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys?
A. They could perform basic addition. B. They could understand simple words.
C. They could memorize numbers easily. D. They could hold their attention for long.
35. In which section of a newspaper may this text appear?
A. Entertainment. B. Health. C. Education. D. Science.正确答案
32. C 33. B 34. A 35. D答案解析
本文是一篇新闻报道，以客观报道的角度，介绍了Margaret Livingstone 的实验过程及结果。文章以介绍了猴子和数字的关系，来展开此实验，试题相对较难。
32. 题目：What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them?把 before testing them作为定位词，可以找到定位句： In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. 因此：在开始实验前应训练猴子能触碰屏幕的能力，选项C符合题意。
33. 考查细节理解。题目为： How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment?根据题意，找到对应句:文章第三段最后一句，"If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; if they ... they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example ", 可知猴子通过触碰屏幕来获得奖励，故选B.
34. 考查推理判断。题目What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys?根据题意找到对应句：文章第四段"they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination"，猴子可以做基本的加法。由此可知，A符合题意。